Additional Libraries

Libraries in this section are no longer considered to be part of the Penlight core, but still provide specialized functionality when needed.

Simple Input Patterns

Lua string pattern matching is very powerful, and usually you will not need a traditional regular expression library. Even so, sometimes Lua code ends up looking like Perl, which happens because string patterns are not always the easiest things to read, especially for the casual reader. Here is a program which needs to understand three distinct date formats:

 -- parsing dates using Lua string patterns

 function check_and_process(d,m,y)
     d = tonumber(d)
     m = tonumber(m)
     y = tonumber(y)

 for line in f:lines() do
     -- ordinary (English) date format
     local d,m,y = line:match('(%d+)/(%d+)/(%d+)')
     if d then
     else -- ISO date??
         y,m,d = line:match('(%d+)%-(%d+)%-(%d+)')
         if y then
         else -- <day> <month-name> <year>?
             d,mm,y = line:match('%(d+)%s+(%a+)%s+(%d+)')
             m = months[mm]

These aren't particularly difficult patterns, but already typical issues are appearing, such as having to escape '-'. Also, string.match returns its captures, so that we're forced to use a slightly awkward nested if-statement.

Verification issues will further cloud the picture, since regular expression people try to enforce constraints (like year cannot be more than four digits) using regular expressions, on the usual grounds that one shouldn't stop using a hammer when one is enjoying oneself.

pl.sip provides a simple, intuitive way to detect patterns in strings and extract relevant parts.

 > sip = require 'pl.sip'
 > dump = require('pl.pretty').dump
 > res = {}
 > c = sip.compile 'ref=$S{file}:$d{line}'
 > = c('ref=hello.c:10',res)
 > dump(res)
   line = 10,
   file = "hello.c"
 > = c('ref=long name, no line',res)

sip.compile creates a pattern matcher function, which is given a string and a table. If it matches the string, then true is returned and the table is populated according to the named fields in the pattern.

Here is another version of the date parser:

 -- using SIP patterns
 function check(t)

 shortdate = sip.compile('$d{day}/$d{month}/$d{year}')
 longdate = sip.compile('$d{day} $v{mon} $d{year}')
 isodate = sip.compile('$d{year}-$d{month}-$d{day}')

 for line in f:lines() do
     local res = {}
     if shortdate(str,res) then
     elseif isodate(str,res) then
     elseif longdate(str,res) then
         res.month = months[res.mon]

SIP patterns start with '$', then a one-letter type, and then an optional variable in curly braces.

 Type    Meaning
 v         variable, or identifier.
 i          possibly signed integer
 f          floating-point number
 r          'rest of line'
 q         quoted string (either ' or ")
 p         a path name
 (         anything inside (...)
 [         anything inside [...]
 {         anything inside {...}
 <         anything inside <...>
 S         non-space
 d         digits

If a type is not one of v,i,f,r or q, then it's assumed to be one of the standard Lua character classes. Any spaces you leave in your pattern will match any number of spaces. And any 'magic' string characters will be escaped.

SIP captures (like $v{mon}) do not have to be named. You can use just $v, but you have to be consistent; if a pattern contains unnamed captures, then all captures must be unnamed. In this case, the result table is a simple list of values.

sip.match is a useful shortcut if you like your matches to be 'in place'. (It caches the result, so it is not much slower than explicitly using sip.compile .)

 > sip.match('($q{first},$q{second})','("john","smith")',res)
 > res
 > res = {}
 > sip.match('($q,$q)','("jan","smit")',res)  -- unnamed captures
 > res
 > sip.match('($q,$q)','("jan", "smit")',res)
 false   ---> oops! Can't handle extra space!
 > sip.match('( $q , $q )','("jan", "smit")',res)

As a general rule, allow for whitespace in your patterns.

Finally, putting a ' $' at the end of a pattern means 'capture the rest of the line, starting at the first non-space'.

 > sip.match('( $q , $q ) $','("jan", "smit") and a string',res)
 > res
 {'jan','smit','and a string'}
 > res = {}
 > sip.match('( $q{first} , $q{last} ) $','("jan", "smit") and a string',res)
 > res
 {first='jan',rest='and a string',last='smit'}

Command-line Programs with Lapp

pl.lapp is a small and focused Lua module which aims to make standard command-line parsing easier and intuitive. It implements the standard GNU style, i.e. short flags with one letter start with '-', and there may be an additional long flag which starts with '--'. Generally options which take an argument expect to find it as the next parameter (e.g. 'gcc test.c -o test') but single short options taking a numerical parameter can dispense with the space (e.g. 'head -n4 test.c')

As far as possible, Lapp will convert parameters into their equivalent Lua types, i.e. convert numbers and convert filenames into file objects. If any conversion fails, or a required parameter is missing, an error will be issued and the usage text will be written out. So there are two necessary tasks, supplying the flag and option names and associating them with a type.

For any non-trivial script, even for personal consumption, it's necessary to supply usage text. The novelty of Lapp is that it starts from that point and defines a loose format for usage strings which can specify the names and types of the parameters.

An example will make this clearer:

 -- scale.lua
   lapp = require 'pl.lapp'
   local args = lapp [[
   Does some calculations
     -o,--offset (default 0.0)  Offset to add to scaled number
     -s,--scale  (number)  Scaling factor
      <number> (number )  Number to be scaled

   print(args.offset + args.scale * args.number)

Here is a command-line session using this script:

 $ lua scale.lua
 scale.lua:missing required parameter: scale

 Does some calculations
  -o,--offset (default 0.0)  Offset to add to scaled number
  -s,--scale  (number)  Scaling factor
   <number> (number )  Number to be scaled

 $ lua scale.lua -s 2.2 10

 $ lua scale.lua -s 2.2 x10
 scale.lua:unable to convert to number: x10

 ....(usage as before)

There are two kinds of lines in Lapp usage strings which are meaningful; option and parameter lines. An option line gives the short option, optionally followed by the corresponding long option. A type specifier in parentheses may follow. Similarly, a parameter line starts with '<' PARAMETER '>', followed by a type specifier. Type specifiers are either of the form '(default ' VALUE ')' or '(' TYPE ')'; the default specifier means that the parameter or option has a default value and is not required. TYPE is one of 'string','number','file-in' or 'file-out'; VALUE is a number, one of ('stdin','stdout','stderr') or a token. The rest of the line is not parsed and can be used for explanatory text.

This script shows the relation between the specified parameter names and the fields in the output table.

 -- simple.lua
 local args = require ('pl.lapp') [[
 Various flags and option types
   -p          A simple optional flag, defaults to false
   -q,--quiet  A simple flag with long name
   -o  (string)  A required option with argument
   <input> (default stdin)  Optional input file parameter

 for k,v in pairs(args) do

I've just dumped out all values of the args table; note that args.quiet has become true, because it's specified; args.p defaults to false. If there is a long name for an option, that will be used in preference as a field name. A type or default specifier is not necessary for simple flags, since the default type is boolean.

 $ simple -o test -q simple.lua
 p       false
 input   file (781C1BD8)
 quiet   true
 o       test
 input_name      simple.lua
 D:\dev\lua\lapp>simple -o test simple.lua one two three
 1       one
 2       two
 3       three
 p       false
 quiet   false
 input   file (781C1BD8)
 o       test
 input_name      simple.lua

The parameter input has been set to an open read-only file object - we know it must be a read-only file since that is the type of the default value. The field input_name is automatically generated, since it's often useful to have access to the original filename.

Notice that any extra parameters supplied will be put in the result table with integer indices, i.e. args[i] where i goes from 1 to #args.

Files don't really have to be closed explicitly for short scripts with a quick well-defined mission, since the result of garbage-collecting file objects is to close them.

Enforcing a Range for a Parameter

The type specifier can also be of the form '(' MIN '..' MAX ')'.

 local lapp = require 'pl.lapp'
 local args = lapp [[
     Setting ranges
     <x> (1..10)  A number from 1 to 10
     <y> (-5..1e6) Bigger range


Here the meaning is that the value is greater or equal to MIN and less or equal to MAX; there is no provision for forcing a parameter to be a whole number.

You may also define custom types that can be used in the type specifier:

 lapp = require ('pl.lapp')

         lapp.assert(math.ceil(x) == x, 'not an integer!')

 local args =  lapp [[
     <ival> (integer) Process PID


lapp.add_type takes three parameters, a type name, a converter and a constraint function. The constraint function is expected to throw an assertion if some condition is not true; we use lapp.assert because it fails in the standard way for a command-line script. The converter argument can either be a type name known to Lapp, or a function which takes a string and generates a value.

'varargs' Parameter Arrays

 lapp = require 'pl.lapp'
 local args = lapp [[
 Summing numbers
     <numbers...> (number) A list of numbers to be summed

 local sum = 0
 for i,x in ipairs(args.numbers) do
     sum = sum + x
 print ('sum is '..sum)

The parameter number has a trailing '...', which indicates that this parameter is a 'varargs' parameter. It must be the last parameter, and args.number will be an array.

Consider this implementation of the head utility from Mac OS X:

 -- implements a BSD-style head
 -- (see

 lapp = require ('pl.lapp')

 local args = lapp [[
 Print the first few lines of specified files
    -n         (default 10)    Number of lines to print
    <files...> (default stdin) Files to print

 -- by default, lapp converts file arguments to an actual Lua file object.
 -- But the actual filename is always available as <file>_name.
 -- In this case, 'files' is a varargs array, so that 'files_name' is
 -- also an array.
 local nline = args.n
 local nfile = #args.files
 for i = 1,nfile do
     local file = args.files[i]
     if nfile > 1 then
         print('==> '..args.files_name[i]..' <==')
     local n = 0
     for line in file:lines() do
         n = n + 1
         if n == nline then break end

Note how we have access to all the filenames, because the auto-generated field files_name is also an array!

(This is probably not a very considerate script, since Lapp will open all the files provided, and only close them at the end of the script. See the xhead.lua example for another implementation.)

Flags and options may also be declared as vararg arrays, and can occur anywhere. Bear in mind that short options can be combined (like 'tar -xzf'), so it's perfectly legal to have '-vvv'. But normally the value of args.v is just a simple true value.

 local args = require ('pl.lapp') [[
    -v...  Verbosity level; can be -v, -vv or -vvv
 vlevel = not args.v[1] and 0 or #args.v

The vlevel assigment is a bit of Lua voodoo, so consider the cases:

 * No -v flag, v is just { false }
 * One -v flags, v is { true }
 * Two -v flags, v is { true, true }
 * Three -v flags, v is { true, true, true }

Defining a Parameter Callback

If a script implements lapp.callback, then Lapp will call it after each argument is parsed. The callback is passed the parameter name, the raw unparsed value, and the result table. It is called immediately after assignment of the value, so the corresponding field is available.

 lapp = require ('pl.lapp')

 function lapp.callback(parm,arg,args)

 local args = lapp [[
 Testing parameter handling
     -p               Plain flag (defaults to false)
     -q,--quiet       Plain flag with GNU-style optional long name
     -o  (string)     Required string option
     -n  (number)     Required number option
     -s (default 1.0) Option that takes a number, but will default
     <start> (number) Required number argument
     <input> (default stdin)  A parameter which is an input file
     <output> (default stdout) One that is an output file
 print 'args'
 for k,v in pairs(args) do

This produces the following output:

 $ args -o name -n 2 10 args.lua
 +       o       name
 +       n       2
 +       start   10
 +       input   args.lua
 p       false
 s       1
 input_name      args.lua
 quiet   false
 output  file (781C1B98)
 start   10
 input   file (781C1BD8)
 o       name
 n       2

Callbacks are needed when you want to take action immediately on parsing an argument.

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